A few quotes from texts that describe Gallantine:
From "The History of English Cookery, prospect books"
"GALLENDINES, 43, 144, 153: the same word as galantine, but with a meaning different from the modern usage. As May’s recipes show, 17th century galantine in England was a dark-coloured sauce made with vinegar, breadcrumbs, cinnamon and sometimes other spices. Earlier, in medieval times, a galantine had been a jellied dish of fish or fowl or meat; and it was this version, which lingered longer in France and eventually crossed in a somewhat new form to England at the beginning of the 18th century, which evolved into our present galantine. See C Anne Wilson (1980). (Robert May, 1660/1685)”
From commentary by Terrance Scully (Scappi, Opera)
"The earliest records of a galantine date from the very beginning of the thirteenth century when the proteins in animal hooves or on the skin of certain fish caused a spicy mixture to jell. The words galantine and gelatin are cognate. Scappi's galantina, whether for dipping or for garnishing, will not be a jelly although for both uses relatively thick."
Even though these commentaries do not come with actual sources, I could give them their word and suspect that a sauce quickly evolved out of a dish which earned the name Galantine (in it's various spellings) with hints of the original dish remaining into the 15th centuries.
(just watch, someday we will invent the time machine and find out the name had something to do with Galen, or maybe it was a sauce to sing about :P)
Interesting to note however, is that (in reference to "History of English Cookery" above) Galantine was a "sauce made with vinegar, breadcrumbs, cinnamon and sometimes other spices" as far back as the 14th century just as it was in May's recipes from 1685. As well, sauces at least as early as the 15th century were "dark-coloured" where it was coloured with either blood or sanders.
From 'Form of Cury'
(I typed this out in 'modern' English)
"Take crust of Bread and grind it small, add powder of galingale, cinnamon, ginger and salt it, temper it with vinegar and draw it up through a strainer and mess it forth."
From "The Accomplished Cook", May
"A Gallendine sauce made with strained bread, vinegar, claret wine, cinamon, ginger, and sugar; strain it, and being finely beaten with the spices boil it up with a few whole cloves and a sprig of rosemary."
"Make a gallendine with some grated bread, beaten cinamon, and ginger, a quartern of sugar, a quart of claret wine, a pint of wine vinegar, strain the aforesaid materials and boil them in a skillet with a few whole cloves; in the boiling stir it with a spring of rosemary, add a little red sanders, and boil it as thick as water grewel."
Sections from Galantine recipes (15th century)
From "HARLEIAN MS. 279"
"strayne it on blode, with ale, or ellys sawnderys"
"caste þer-to a fewe Saunderys"
Alternately, brown from other items
From "A Noble Boke off Cookry"
"tak crust of brown bred and stepe them in venygar put ther to pouder of canelle and let it step till it be broun"
But... the point here being is that one can not draw too many conclusions just from one or two recipes, or from statements above... even if there are grains the size of specks to that of elephants of truth to them.
Note: these are sauces, not complete dishes in how they are cooked, I'll touch on proteins cooked IN Gallantine later on.
'Form of Cury', 14th century
(I typed this out in 'modern' English)
Take crust of Bread and grind it small, add powder of galingale, cinnamon, ginger and salt it, temper it with vinegar and draw it up through a strainer and mess it forth.
Le Menagier de Paris (14th cent.)
GALANTINE FOR CARP. Grind saffron, ginger, clove, grain, long pepper and nutmegs, and soak in the greasy liquid in which the carp will cook, and add to it verjuice, wine and vinegar; and thicken it with a little toasted bread ground up well, and without sieving, (it is said that sieved bread makes a nicer sauce ) and boil it all and throw on the cooked fish, then put in dishes. And it is good reheated on a dish on the grill, better than all cold. Note that it is good and nice without saffron; and note that it is enough that each plate have two chunks of carp and four fried gudgeon.
HARLEIAN MS. 279, ab. 1420
Lampreys in galentyn.—Take Brede, & stepe it with Wyne & Vynegre, & caste þer-to Canelle, & draw it þorw a straynoure, and do it in a potte, & caste pepir þer-to; þan take Smale Oynonys, mynce hem, frye hem in Oyle, & caste þer-to a fewe Saunderys, [leaf 25.] an let hem boyle a lytil; þen take þe lampronys & skalde hem with [gap: ] & hot watere, & sethe & boyle hem in a dysshe, & cast þe Sewe vppe-on, & serue forth for a potage.
(translation and break down)
(Sauce)--Take Bread, & steep it with wine and vinegar, and cast there-to cassia [cinnamon] and draw it through a strainer, and do it in a pot, and cast pepper there-to; then take small onions, mince them, fry them in oil and caste there-to a few sanders and let them boil a little;
(Lamprey Preparation and presentation)--Then take lampreys and scald them with [gap: ] and hot water and seethe and boil them in a dish and cast the Stew upon, and serve forth for a pottage.
Liber cure cocorum 1430
Galentyne. Take crust of brede and grynde hit smalle, Take powder of galingale and temper with alle Powder of gyngere and salt also. Temper hit with venegur er þou more do, Draw3e hit þurughe a streynour þenne, And messe hit forthe before gode menne.
--Take crust of bread and grind it small, Take powder of galingale and temper with all powder of ginger and salt also. Temper it with vinegar (before?) thou more do, Draw it through a strainer then, and mess it forth before good men.
ASHMOLE MS. 1439.
Sauce galentyne.—Take faire crusteȝ of̘ broun brede, stepe þem in vinegre, and put̘ þer-to poudre canel, and lete it̘ stepe þer-wyþ til it be broun; and þanne drawe it þurwe a straynour .ij. tymes or .iij., and þanne put þerto [supplied by ed.] poudre piper and salte: & lete it̘ be sumwhat̘ stondynge, and not to þynne, & serue forth.
--Take fair crusts of brown bread, steep them in vinegar and put there-to powdered cassia [cinnamon] and let it steep therewith till it be brown; and then draw it through a strainer 2 or 3 times, and then put there-to powdered pepper and salt and let it be somewhat standing [Thick], and not to thin and serve fourth.
HARLEIAN MS. 4016, ab. 1450 A.D.)
Sauce galentyne. ¶ Take faire crustes of browne brede stept in vinegre, And cast thereto pouder of caneƚƚ, and lete hit stepe therewitℏ, til hit be browne; þen̄ drawe hit thorgh a streynour ones or twyes, And caste there-to pouder of peper, And lete hit be som̄-whatte stonding, And þen̄ serue hit forthe.
--Take fair crusts of brown bread steeped in vinegar, And cast thereto powder of cassia [cinnamon] and let it steep therewith, till it be brown’ then draw it through a strainer once or twice, And cast thereto powder of pepper and let it be somewhat standing [thick], and then serve it fourth.
Lamprons in Galentyne. ¶ Take brede, and stepe it in wyne and vynegre, and cast there-to Caneƚƚ, [folio 23b.] and drawe it thorgℏ a streynour; and do it in a potte, and cast pouder of peper thereto; And take smale oynons, and myce hem, and fry hem in oyle, & cast there-to a fewe saundres, and lete hem boyle a litul; And then̄ take lamprons, and scalde hem witℏ hey in hote water, and setℏ hem; and þen̄ br [supplied by ed.] oyle*. [Douce MS. bouille. ] hem on̄ a faire gredren̄, and þen̄ couche hem in a dissℏ and cast the sauce on̄ hem, And then̄ serue it fortℏ.
--(almost the same as HARLEIAN MS. 279)
Take bread and steep it in wine and vinegar, and cast thereto cassia [cinnamon] and draw it through a strainer; and do it in [into] a pot and cast powder of pepper thereto; and take small onions and mince them and fry them in oil and cast thereto a few sanders, and let them boil a little; And then take lampreys, and scald them with hey [?] in hot water, and seethe them; and then broil them on a fair gridiron and then lay them in a dish and cast sauce on them, and then serve forth.
Pike in galentyne. ¶ Take a pike and setℏ him ynowe in gode sauce; And þen̄ couche him in a vesseƚƚ, that he may be y-caried yn̄, if þou wilt// And what tyme he is colde, take brede, and stepe hit in wyne and vinegre, and cast there-to caneƚƚ, and drawe hit þorgℏ a streynour, And do hit in a potte, And caste there-to pouder peper; And take smale oynons, and myce hem, And fry hem in oyle, and cast there-to a fewe saundres, and lete boyle awhile; And cast aƚƚ this hote vppon̄ þe pike, and cary him fortℏ.
--Take a pike and seethe him enough in good sauce; and then lay him in a vessel that he may be carried in, if though will. And what time he is cold, take bread, and steep it in wine and vinegar and cast thereto cassia [cinnamon], and draw it through a strainer, And do it in a pot, and cast thereto powdered pepper; and take small onions and mince them and fry them in oil and cast thereto a few sanders and let boil awhile; and cast all this hot upon the pike, and carry him forth.
Auter pike in Galentyne. ¶ Take browne brede, and stepe it in a quarte of vinegre, and a pece*. [Douce MS. pynt. ] of wyne for a pike, and quarteren̄ of pouder caneƚƚ, and drawe it thorgℏ a streynour skilfully thik, and cast it in a potte, and lete boyle; and cast there-to pouder peper, or ginger, or of clowes, and lete kele. And þen̄ take a pike, and setℏ him in good sauce, and take him vp, and lete him kele a litul; and ley him in a boƚƚ for to cary him yn̄; and cast þe sauce vnder him and aboue him, that he be al y-hidde in þe sauce; and cary him wheþer euer þou wolt.
--Take brown bread and steepe it in a quart of vinegar and a cup of wine for a pike and [1/4 measure, probably an ounce] of powdered cassia [cinnamon] and draw it through a strainer skillfully thick and cast it in a pot, and let boil; and care thereto powdered pepper, or ginger, or of cloves and let cool. And then take pike and seethe him in good sauce, and take him up and let him cool a little, and lay him in a bowl for to carry him in; and cast the sauce under him and above him, they he all hidden in the sauce; and carry him wherever though wilt.
(NOTES on this recipe: It first shows how to make the sauce and then how to cook the pike, it says to cook the pike in good sauce but it does not state that the pike is actually cooked in the Galantine. It seems to me, though obviously opinions vary, is that the sauce and pike are cooked separate and that the pike is smothered in the sauce.
Also, apart from various other sauce types, if one looks at the gallendine in "Managier de Paris", it shows that the carp is cooked in a greasy liquid, not in the galentine... also that the liquid itself is likely used in the galentine before the carp is cooked in it which may or may not aid in jellying as we don't know the contents of said liquid.
Notes in support of a jelly rather than a pike in thick sauce can be found here:
(this was pointed out to me in support of galentine being a jelly)
MS Pepys 1047, late 15th century
To make gallentyne
Take Crustys of white sowre brede and tost hit tyll hit be brown brynnyd and stepe hit in vynAgyre and draw hem throwgh A streynner with the same vynneAger set on the fyre And boyle hit well and cast ther yn sawnders pouder of gynger And synamom and a litell pepur And if hit be to terte put more sugar ther to And that will Amend hit.
Take the crusts of white sour bread and toast it till it be brown burnt and steep it in vinegar and draw it through a strainer with the same vinegar, set on the fire and boil it well and cast sanders, powder of ginger and cinnamon and a little pepper and if it be too tart, put more sugar thereto and that will amend it.
(A Noble Boke off Cookry)1468
To mak sauce galentyne tak crust of brown bred and stepe them in venygar put ther to pouder of canelle and let it step till it be broun then streyn it ij or iij tymes cast it to pouder and salt and let it be stonding and serve it.
To make sauce galantine, take crust of brown bread and steep them in vinegar, put thereto powder of cassia [cinnamon] and let it steep till it be brown then strain it 2 or 3 times, cast it to powder and salt and let it be standing [thick] and serve it.
KANTL Gent 15 (16th)
To make "galentijn".
Take white bread and cut it in thin slices. Push [the slices] on the fire to brown them, then steep them in wine. Beat the steeped bread up with some potsugar or floursugar and strain it through a sieve. Boil it as if it were [a] pepper[sauce]. When you take it off [the fire] add mace, some nutmeg and some cloves, but galingale the most. And when you want to keep it some time, let it boil the longer.
The Boke of Kervynge 1508
Fresh lamprey bake open the pasty than take white bread and cut it thin & lay it in a dish & with a spoon take out galantine & lay it upon the bread with red wine & powder of synamon than cur a gobone of the lamprey & mince the gobone thinn and lay it in the galantine than set it upon the fire to heat.
(NOTES: This is not a galentine recipe but rather instruction on serving it. White bread is cut thinly and laid in a dish where then the galantine is spooned onto the bread with red wine and cinnamon. The lamprey, which was baked in pastry, is removed, prepared and laid on the galentine and then heated.
note from: THE Accomplisht Cook, OR THE ART & MYSTERY OF COOKERY. 1685,
"Fresh Lamprey bak’d, open the pasty, then take white bread, and cut it thin, lay it in a dish, & with a spoon take out Galentine, & lay it upon the bread with red wine and powder of Cinamon; then cut a gobbin of B5v Lamprey, mince it thin, and lay it in the Gallentine, and set it on the fire to heat.")
Het eerste gedrukte Nederlandsche kookboek, Brussel, Thomas vander Noot (+/-1510)
To make a galentijn for ray
Take the fish and boil it. Then let it cool and lay it so that it drains well and does not remain wet. And then take thinly sliced bread which you will toast well so that it is nicely brown; you will break that up in a mortar. When it has been beaten small you shall put it through a strainer with wine and with vinegar, to wit: two parts [thirds] wine and the third vinegar. This you shall let boil together with saffron, not too highly or strongly coloured. And one shall let this boil until it is thick enough. One must stir it often, so that it does not stick or burn. But some prefer [not to] and do not boil it and it is therefore as good unboiled as boiled. If/when it is boiled one shall take it from the fire and stir it until it is cold. After that one puts in the spices, and galingale the most, because galentijn is named after it. And one puts in as much spice as one wishes to have it strong [i.e. spice according to the strength desired]. Then one lays the fish in it all dry so that it is not wet or one lays the fish in dishes and serves the sauce over it. Then one strews cinnamon. Then it is finished.
Item. Spices for [galentijn are] grains of paradise, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, saffron, and galingale not crushed too finely.
(NOTES: This clearly shows the fish being cooked first, which is then left to dry... no mention of any of the broth being used to make the galantine whereas other sauces, that utilize broth, clearly mentions it's use)
The Opera... Scappi, 1570
To prepare a sauce popularly called Galantine that can be used as a sauce or a garnishing for spit-roasted fowl and quadrupeds.
Get a pound of dried currants, grind them in a mortar with six hard-boiled egg yolks, three ounces of mostaccioli and three ounces of bread toasted on the coals and soaked in rose vinegar; moisten all that with six ounces of malmsey and four ounces of verjuice. Put it through a filter or strainer, adding in a pound of sugar, three ounces of semi-sweet orange juice, half an ounce of ground cinnamon and one ounce of ground pepper, cloves and nutmeg together. When it has been strained, heat it in a casserole pot, then lit it cool. when it is cold, serve it as a sauce, with the sugar and cinnamon over it. If you want it for garnishing fowl and game roasted on a spit, keep it thinner with a little lean meat broth.
(Note: it is pretty common for sauces of various types to be served with sugar and cinnamon strewed over top as you might notice on reading through other sauce recipes)
A True Gentlewomans Delight, 1653
To make gallendine Sauce for a Turkey.
Take some Claret Wine, and some grated Bread, and a sprig of Rosemary, a little beaten Cloves, a little beaten Cinnamon, and some Sugar.
The Accomplished Cook, 1685:
A Gallendine sauce made with strained bread, vinegar, claret wine, cinamon, ginger, and sugar; strain it, and being finely beaten with the spices boil it up with a few whole cloves and a sprig of rosemary.
Make a gallendine with some grated bread, beaten cinamon, and ginger, a quartern of sugar, a quart of claret wine, a pint of wine vinegar, strain the aforesaid materials and boil them in a skillet with a few whole cloves; in the boiling stir it with a spring of rosemary, add a little red sanders, and boil it as thick as water grewel.
(Note: A quartern is a quarter measurement, can be from a quarter ounce to a quarter pound. According to "MS Pepys 1047", the sugar is to prevent it from becoming too tart which may be useful in determining on how much to add)
Now, for Galentine as a Jelly (or could be as a jelly)
HARLEIAN MS. 279, ab. 1420 A.D.
Fylettys en Galentyne.—Take fayre porke, þe fore quarter, an take of þe skyne; an put þe porke on a fayre spete, an rost it half y-now; þan take it of, an smyte it in fayre pecys, & caste it on a fayre potte; þan take oynonys, and schrede hem, an pele hem (an pyle hem nowt to smale), an frye in a panne of fayre grece; þan caste hem in þe potte to þe porke; þan take gode broth of moton or of beef, an caste þer-to, an þan caste þer-to pouder pepyr, canel, clowys, an macys, an let hem boyle wyl to-gederys; þan tak fayre brede, an vynegre, an stepe þe brede with þe same brothe, an strayne it on blode, with ale, or ellys sawnderys, and [leaf 8 bk.] salt, an lat hym boyle y-now, an serue it forth.
--Take fair pork, the for quarter, and take off the skin; and put the pork on a fair spit, and toast it half enough; then take it off and smite it in fair pieces, and cast it on a fair pot; Then take onions and shred them, and peel them (and pile them not to small), and fry them in a pan of fair grease; then cast them in the pot to the pork; then take good broth of mutton or of beef and cast there-to, and then cast there-to powdered pepper, cassia [cinnamon], cloves and mace and let them boil while together; then take fair bread, and vinegar, and steep the bread with the same broth, and strain it on blood, with ale, or else sanders, and salt, and let them boil enough, and serve it fourth.
(Notes: This would have to be cooled to be allowed to jelly to get the effect. Also, because it seems the meat is only half roasted that there would be enough natural juices to help form a jelly. Depending on the grease used would effect the end result of a formed jelly... if set in a dish and flipped, there would be a layer of fat on the bottom
"ffelettes in galentyne" found in HARLEIAN MS. 279 is basically the exact same dish)
Le Recueil de Riom (15th century)
Inside-out eels and pike and carp in galantine.
The spices to put in – grains of paradise, and cloves, nutmeg, and mace. And, when the meat is cooked, take the broth and the toasted bread, and strain, and put to a boil in a pot. And put to cool in a wooden bowl and put the sauce on top.
(Notes: utilizes the broth from the cooked meat and boiled down further with strained bread, this will certainly be thick and can certainly jelly. It doesn't exactly describe as a fish encased in a jelly though.)
ms UB Gent 1035 (15th)
Galantine for 100 lampreys.
Take one eighth of a pound of pepper and one ounce of saffron. Grind together and temper with wine. Boil them (the lampreys) in wine vinegar.
(Notes: Doesn't actually state that the liquid from the lampreys will end up in the sauce, seems to lack description all together apart from some sparse direction)
Thus far, the winner for the best poster recipes for proof that galantine sauces are jellies would be the 15th century sauces mentioned in this section.